The concept of BitCoin was originally proposed by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008, and the open source software designed and released based on Satoshi Nakamoto's ideas along with the P2P network on which it is built. Bitcoin is a P2P form of digital currency. The peer-to-peer transmission implies a decentralized payment system. Unlike most currencies, Bitcoin does not rely on a specific monetary institution to issue it. It is based on a specific algorithm, generated through extensive computation, and the Bitcoin economy uses a distributed database of many nodes throughout the p2p network to confirm and record all transactions, and uses cryptography designed to ensure security in all aspects of the currency's circulation. The decentralized nature of p2p and the algorithm itself ensure that the value of the currency cannot be artificially manipulated through the mass production of bitcoins. The cryptography-based design allows bitcoins to be transferred or paid only by the real owner. This also ensures the anonymity of the currency's ownership and transactions. The biggest difference between Bitcoin and other virtual currencies is that the total number of Bitcoins is very limited and extremely scarce. The cryptocurrency system had only no more than 10.5 million for four years, after which the total number will be permanently limited to 21 million.
Ethereum is a blockchain-based, open source publicly distributed computing platform that runs systems with smart contracts (scripts). It supports a modified version of Satoshi Nakamoto's consensus through a program execution unit based on state transitions.
Ether is the cryptocurrency, and its blockchain is generated by Ethereum. Ether is used to reward miners who contribute with computing power.
Ether provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine, the Ether Virtual Machine (EVM) that can execute scripts using an international network. Gas is an internal transaction pricing mechanism that reduces the amount of spam as well as enables resource allocation on the network.
The EOS.IO software introduces a blockchain structure that guarantees vertical and horizontal scaling of decentralized applications. This is achieved through an analog operating system concept, based on which new applications can be created. This software can be crossed across multiple CPU cores and clusters to provide accounts, proofs, databases, asynchronous exchanges and to enable scheduling of applications. The final technology is a blockchain architecture that has the ability to achieve millions of transactions per second without user fees and allows for fast and easy deployment of decentralized applications.
Litecoin is a network currency based on peer-to-peer technology that is inspired by Bitcoin (BTC) and has the same technical implementation principles. It differs from Bitcoin in that it can also be "mined" efficiently with low-cost hardware, providing faster transaction confirmations (2.5 minutes on average). The LiteCoin network is expected to produce 84 million units of the currency.
Bitcoin Cash (BCH), known as BitcoinCash, is a new cryptographic digital asset launched by mining pool ViaBTC based on the BitcoinABC scheme. The Bitcoin community has been debating around the expansion issue for three years, and finally on August 1, 2017, Bitcoin Cash executed a hard fork at block height 478558, distributed according to Bitcoin 1:1, totaling 21 million, removing the isolated witness, upgrading the block cap to 8M, and later upgrading it to 32M, solving the high fees, slow confirmation, and poor utility in the old Bitcoin system through on-chain expansion, and fulfills the promise of Bitcoin as "peer-to-peer electronic cash".
Ripple is a virtual currency issued by OpenCoin, called Ripple Credits, or XRP. XRP
Ripple is a virtual currency issued by OpenCoin, called Ripple Credits, or XRP in Chinese. Ripple is the world's first open payment network that allows you to transfer any currency, easily and quickly, with transaction confirmation in seconds or less, and almost zero transaction fees, no cross-bank or cross-border transaction fees. The Ripple open payment system is a virtual currency network (a distributed P2P payment network), the electronic payment platform of the future. 2004 saw the launch of the first implementation of Ripple by Ryan Fugger, whose goal was to build a decentralized virtual currency system that would allow anyone to create their own currency. Ripple is currently developed, run, and maintained by OpenCoin (currently renamed RippleLabs).
Polkadot is a collection of multiple, heterogeneous blockchains, the main purpose of Polkadot is to connect currently separate blockchains. Through Polkadot, communication and data transfer between different blockchains can take place. The Polkadot project was founded in 2015 and is led by the famous Dr. Gavin Wood, one of the founders of Ether and the creator of the Ether Yellow Book, who left Ether to start his own technology company, Parity. Polkadot is a project managed by Parity. DOT is the native token of the Polkadot platform and is mainly used to: manage the platform; operate the network; create blockchains by bonding together DOT; and pay for messaging fees.
Launched in June 2017 by San Francisco-based fintech company SmartContract, Chainlink is described by its developers as a secure blockchain middleware designed to allow smart contracts to access key off-chain resources (e.g. data streams (databases), website (WeChat, Taobao, etc.) APIs, and traditional bank (Alipay, WeChat Pay, etc.) account payments by allowing smart contracts. The ChainLink network is a distributed network of ChainLink nodes, all of which feed specific data, APIs, and the use of various offline payment functions directly to smart contracts. The Chainlink network consists of two separate parts, the on-chain and the off-chain, which must interact in order to provide services. The network is built in such a way that it is scalable, so that its different components can be replaced as better technologies and techniques become available. The on-chain components of the network feed the oracle through Service Level Agreements (SLAs) based on metrics requested by one side of the smart contract. Using these metrics, Chainlink collects responses to SLA queries, sorts them using reputation and aggregation models, and provides the final aggregated results of Chainlink queries that may be implemented into smart contracts. Chainlink's token, LINK, has a sales cap of $32 million and a total supply of 1 billion. 35% of all LINK tokens will be sold through node operators to incentivize the ecosystem and an additional 35% in public token sales. The final 30% of the total number of LINK tokens will remain with the company for continued development and employee payments.
Uniswap is an ethereum-based protocol designed to facilitate automated exchange transactions between ETH and ERC20 token digital assets, providing liquidity automatically on ethereum. uniswap is fully deployed on-chain and can be used by any individual user with decentralized wallet software installed. Uniswap attempts to use decentralized protocols to allow digital assets to transaction to be completely decentralized.
Filecoin is a peer-to-peer network for storing files, with built-in economic incentives to ensure reliable storage of files over time. In Filecoin, users pay to have their files stored on a storage miner. Storage miners are the computers responsible for storing files and proving that they have stored them correctly over time. Anyone who wants to store their files or wants to be paid for storing other users' files can join Filecoin. The available storage space and the price of that storage space is not controlled by any one company. Instead, Filecoin facilitates an open market to store and retrieve files that anyone can participate in. Filecoin includes both blockchain and native cryptocurrency (FIL). Storage miners earn FIL units by storing files. Filecoin's blockchain records transactions to send and receive FIL, as well as proofs from storage miners that they have stored the files correctly.
Shib is an experiment in decentralized spontaneous community building and is the first token to go live and serve as an incentive on the decentralized exchange ShibaSwap.
Dogecoin is a peer-to-peer decentralized digital currency and the name of the network on which it conducts transactions. Dogecoin was initially based on a joke that was popular in 2013. However, its community appeal, launch mechanism and the utility of offering tips to social network users soon garnered a large following. The network was actually an offshoot of the now-defunct Luckycoin. Luckycoin itself was an offshoot of Litecoin, which had a random block reward between 1 and 1 million tokens. Dogecoin borrows this model by halving the maximum random reward only every 100,000 blocks. In 2014, the block reward structure was changed to issue a fixed but steadily decreasing number of DOGEs each year. Another change in 2015 set the reward at 10,000 DOGE per block. DOGE uses the same Scrypt proof-of-work algorithm as Litecoin. However, its initially inconsistent block rewards made it unpopular among miners. Realizing that Dogecoin's low hash rate made it a likely target for 51% attacks, Litecoin founder Charlie Lee worked with Dogecoin's founders to introduce merge mining to the network. Doing so would enhance Dogecoin's security and allow Litecoin miners to mine both LTC and DOGE without increasing energy consumption.
Adacoin (Cardano) is a decentralized public blockchain and cryptocurrency project and is fully open source. Cardano is developing a smart contract platform that is designed to provide more advanced functionality than any previously developed protocol. It is the first blockchain platform to evolve from a philosophy of science and a research-first approach. The development team consists of large expert engineers and researchers from around the world.